new news

November 30th, 2008 . 5 comments

It’s getting to the end of the year and things are getting busy. There’s been plenty on at work – quite a few projects have been running concurrent for a while, including a new Bridgestone gecko spot that’s out now, and the still in-progress project I’ve been working on the volume rendering for.

We’ve been getting around a bit too, four of us headed down to Melbourne in October to attend the first ‘Melbourne Blender Society‘ meeting. We gave an informal presentation about some of our work, much of it involving character setups, and then headed out for some ‘beer r&d’, meeting some fun and interesting people (Hi Glenn, this only took a month ;).

Jez, James and I also gave a presentation at the Digital Media Festival in Sydney , on the topic of ‘an open source pipeline’, talking about our use of Blender in production. Some of the parts that interested the audience of mostly 3d/vfx/design people most were existing features like the library linking system, but also the ability for us to do custom development, such as contracting the ocean sim tools for the Lighthouse project. I also showed off some work on the volume rendering too 😉

The volume rendering tools are at the point now where it’s going to give acceptable results given the timeframe. Although it’s still lacking a bit in some areas right now that aren’t a priority for this job, for my purpose it’s going pretty well. Raul has now picked up this code to work with too, and I’m looking forward to seeing his implementation of voxel data sets. A couple of the improvements I’ve made since last time posting include:

  • Particle rendering

    There’s now a new 3d texture called ‘point density’ that retrieves density and colour information from point clouds (either particle systems or object vertices). It uses a BVH tree to store the points, and looks up what points are within a given radius of the shaded point, with various falloffs. It also has a few methods for simple turbulence, adding directed noise to give the impression of more detail. It’s also possible to use this texture on solid surfaces too.

  • Light Cache

    In order to speed up rendering of self-shaded volumes, there’s a new option to precalculate the shading at the start of the render into a voxel grid, which gets interpolated later to generate lighting information, rather than shading the lamps directly. You could make the analogy to raytraced occlusion vs approximate occlusion in Blender – it often gives around a 3x speed up with similar quality.

  • A few other small things such as internal and external shadows, anisotropic scattering with various phase functions, integration with the sun/sky system, and various fixes.

Kajimba‘s also rolling along nicely. We’ve released several more animation tests with audio (and plenty more sill in the pipe), the voices for the first episode have been recorded, and the animator dudes have started working on lipsync tests to begin some animation on ep 1 soon.

And on it goes…

grogan enters

October 28th, 2008 . 4 comments

We’ve put the first animation test from Kajimba online (with audio), check it out! 🙂

There’s a few of these clips coming down the pipe, so stay tuned.

volume rendering updates

September 24th, 2008 . 15 comments

Luckily, I’ve been able to work full time for a while on the volume rendering code, as part of budgeted R&D time at work. Since Monday I’ve made a lot of progress, and have been committing code to the ‘sim_physics‘ SVN branch, maintained by Daniel Genrich.

I’m actually quite surprised at how quickly I’ve managed to come this far, I guess I can attribute it partially to the clear design of pbrt, which I’ve used as reference for the fundamental structure. So far, I’m getting close to having it at a reasonably well integrated state with the rest of the renderer. Perhaps tomorrow it’ll be at a state where particles could be rendered by just instancing spheres at each point.

Some of the changes so far include:

  • Fixed the shading bug I mentioned earlier, due to a limitation in the raytrace engine (before, after). Now shading works quite nicely.
  • Added colour emission – as well as the overall ‘Emit:’ slider to control

    overall emission strength, there’s also a colour swatch for the volume to emit

    that colour. This can also be textured, using ‘Emit Col’ in the map to panel.

  • Cleaned up and clarified volume texture mapping, fixing the offsets and scaling, and adding ‘Local’ (similar to Orco) mapping, alongside Object and Global coordinates
  • Added colour absorption – rather than a single absorption value to control how much light is absorbed as it travels through a volume, there’s now an additional absorption colour. This is used to absorb different R/G/B components of light at different amounts. For example, if a white light shines on a volume which absorbs green and blue

    components, the volume will appear red. This colour can also be textured.

  • Refactored the previous volume texturing code to be more efficient
  • Worked on integrating volume materials into the rest of the renderer. Now other objects (and sky) correctly render if they’re partially inside or behind a volume. Previously all other objects were ignored, and volumes just rendered on black. The colour of surfaces inside or behind the volume gets correctly attenuated by the density of the volume in between – i.e. thicker volumes will block the light coming from behind.
  • Enabled rendering with the camera inside the volume.

Correct shading and absorption

Shading with two lamps

Shading within clouds density texture

Textured (with colour ramp) emission colour

Example of various absorption colours

Textured absorption colour

Objects and sky inside and behind volume

Shaded concave volume

Camera passing through a volume


September 18th, 2008 . 7 comments

This week, it’s been very exciting to publicly show a project that’s in the works for some time: Kajimba. It’s a CG animated comedy series for mature audiences (though not pornographic!) about a ragtag bunch of animals in the distant Australian outback, hanging out at the only pub for thousands of km. Kajimba has been in progress in-house at ProMotion since before I started working there, but in the last year has finally gathered momentum, going from what was originally a concept, some sketches and a few early character models, to now, where we’ve done a good few minutes of rendered character animation tests, and production on the first (out of 26 slated) 5 minute episode has begun.

At the present, it’s self-funded by the studio, so it’s taking time to develop alongside other paid work. The benefit of this is that we can do what we want, which working out great so far. It’s not certain how the episodes will be delivered, whether it gets picked up by a TV network or if we’ll try something different. At this stage, we’ll concentrate on getting a first episode done and see how we go from there. It’s a great concept, very aussie, and very exciting. We should hopefully have some first voice recordings happening soon along with more and more images and animation tests coming down the wire so keep an eye on the blog and check on our progress!

Volume Rendering

September 10th, 2008 . 18 comments

Some of you may be aware of the great work done so far by Raul Fernandez Hernandez (“farsthary“) concerning volume rendering in Blender. For those not in the know, rendering volumes of participating media as opposed to solid surfaces, has many uses such as realistically rendering smoke, fire, clouds or fog, or even with more complicated techniques, rendering volume density data such as MRI scans for medical visualisation.

Raul completed a fair bit already, implementing this in Blender. Living in Cuba, where he doesn’t enjoy the same kind of connectivity as in many other parts of the world, it’s been difficult for him to participate in development and share his work. A few weeks ago, he emailed me asking for help with his code, and with maintaining it publicly. I promised I’d at least have a look at the first patch he was able to release and see what I thought.

In some spare time, I had a go at taking apart his patch. Unfortunately, it became clear that it wasn’t suitable for immediate inclusion. It was Raul’s first time coding in Blender (or perhaps in 3D) and due to this, wasn’t aware of some of the techniques available to make his life easier, or of how to integrate the code as cleanly as it could or should be. On top of this, working alone without being able to easily communicate with other developers, he’d been working hard on adding more and more features and options on top of a structure which I think could be done differently and a lot cleaner at a fundamental level. This led to some quite complicated code, and a tricky UI for artists to interact with.

I proposed to Raul that I start again from scratch, simpler and more cleanly integrated and then merge in what I could later down the track, step by step, to which he was very enthusiastic. He excitedly agreed with my invitation to work closely on integrating things like the simulation work he’s been doing, once a new structure is well defined. Recently in a few days off from work I sat down and started fresh, based on the approach in Physically Based Rendering.

Spot light in constant density volume

3 point lights in constant density volume

Textured spot light in constant density volume

So far I’ve got it working reasonably well with about 90% new code. Unlike before, it’s following a physically based approach, with a region of constant or variable density, calculating light emission, absorption, and single scattering from lamps. My aim is to get a simple, easier to use version ready, optimised for practical rendering tasks like smoke, fire or clouds. Once this is working perfectly, integrated cleanly and completely, and working in Blender SVN, further down the track we can think about adding some of the less common capabilities like isosurfaces or volume data sets.

Cloud texture controlling density, lighting from volume emission only

Cloud texture controlling density, 3 lights with single scattering

Spherical blend textures controlling density, directional light with single scattering

There’s still a lot to do – there’s one remaining bug with single scattering I must try and track down, and then there’s a lot of integration work to do, calculating alpha, rendering volumes in front of solid surfaces etc. Before too long I’ll commit this to the newly created ‘sim/physics’ SVN branch and work on it in there. I don’t know how long it will be before Raul is able to start working on this again too, since he’s under some horrible circumstances after hurricane Gustav ravaged Cuba. At least in the near term, I’ll be able to continue poking away at this in SVN.

Some things on my want-to-do list include:

  • Plenty of optimisations
  • Adaptive sampling – step size and/or early termination
  • Alternative anisotropic phase (scattering) functions such as Mie or Henyey-Greenstein
  • Wavelength (R/G/B) dependent absorption, so light gets tinted as it travels through a medium
  • An optimised bounding box or sphere ‘volume region’ primitive, which could be much faster than raytracing meshes as is done now
  • Multiple layers deep ray intersections, to enable concave meshes or volume meshes in front of volume meshes
  • Rendering Blender’s particle systems, either by creating spherical ‘puffs’ at each particle as Afterburner or PyroCluster do, or perhaps by estimating particle density with a kd-tree or such

I hope to be able to provide some more updates on this before too long!

Linear Workflow

September 5th, 2008 . 2 comments

I recently posted on in response to some questions and misunderstanding about gamma correction and ‘linear workflow’ in 3D rendering.

I thought I’d re-post it here, since there are a lot of misconceptions about this topic around.

Much of the value of a linear workflow comes with rendering colour textures. But as the name suggests, it’s a workflow, that has to be kept in mind throughout the entire process.

The issue is that when you make a texture, either painting it in Photoshop to look good on your screen, or as a JPEG from a camera, that image is made to look good under gamma corrected conditions, usually gamma 2.2. So as you paint that texture, you’re looking at it on a monitor that’s already gamma 2.2, which is not linear. This is all well and good, displays are already gamma corrected to better fit the range of human vision.

The problem starts though, when you use those colour maps as textures in a renderer. When you’re doing lighting calculations in a renderer, those take place in a linear colour space. i.e – add 2x as much light, and it gets 2x brighter. The problem is that your colour textures aren’t like that if they’re at gamma 2.2. What’s double in numerical pixel values in gamma 2.2 is not necessarily twice brighter perceptually. So this breaks the idea of taking brightness information from a colour texture and using it in lighting/shading calculations, especially if you’re doing multiple light bounces off textured surfaces.

So what a linear workflow means, is that you take those colour textures, and convert them back to linear space before rendering, then you gamma correct/tonemap the final result back to gamma space (for viewing on a monitor). Now the lighting calculations work accurately, however it does change things – because the textures get darkened in the midtones the image can look darker, so you need to change the lighting setup, etc. etc. Hence, workflow – it’s something you need to have on all throughout the process, not just applying gamma at the end.

I wrote some code a little while ago that did it all automatically in the shading process, applying inverse gamma correction for colour textures before rendering, then corrected back to gamma 2.2 afterwards. After adjusting lights from old scenes to have the same appearance, it gave some nice results. It seemed to bring out a lot more detail in the textures, which got washed out before (left is normal, right is with linear workflow). It’s not finished though, it also needs to adjust the lights in the preview render, and inverse gamma correct colour swatches too so the flat colours you pick in the UI are also linear.

Further references:

Striderite Slimers

September 4th, 2008 . 0 comments

We recently finished a 15 second commercial for Striderite Slimers a new childrens’ shoe made in conjunction with Nickelodeon in the US. It involved heavy use of fluid sim, with all the sim, animation and rendering done in Blender.

You can see some images and video at our website below, and also a zoomed out openGL view of the big splash. The project has also been featured on It’s Art Magazine, and BlenderNation.

Olympic Appearance

August 17th, 2008 . 10 comments

While watching the Beijing olympic opening ceremony last week, I got a bit of a surprise. A couple of months ago at work, we had a quick project come in to model, texture and render turnarounds of a few Chinese artifacts from a reference photo each. Mine wasn’t a big job and was pretty fast to do, using some texture projections with the UV Project modifier and cloning and cleanup in Photoshop.

We’d had a hunch it may be for something related to graphics in the olympics, but I was taken aback to see it blown up on the enormous LED screen during the opening ceremony. I wonder how many million people saw it – too bad this tiny part wasn’t something a bit more impressive! 🙂 Still, not bad for the novelty at least! Below is the original render, and a grab of how it appeared on screen.

blatant self-promotion

July 22nd, 2008 . 8 comments

A couple of nice things have come up lately that I’m quite proud to be able to mention. I was at the Museum of Contemporary Art on the weekend checking out part of the 2008 Biennale of Sydney. Browsing in the museum shop afterwards, I came across a book with a familiar sounding title – Design and the Elastic Mind, published by MoMA (that’s right, the Museum of Modern Art in New York). I knew Elephants Dream had been featured in the web component of this exhibition a little while back, but had no idea there was a book. So, I took a look inside and there it was, published art, with our names in the index too!

Another nice piece of news came in from Exopolis yesterday, mentioning that Lighthouse had appeared in Shoot magazine’s Summer 2008 top 10 visual effects and animation chart, coming in at 2nd place! Because of this, there’s also an article on the project too. Not only is this very flattering to see in itself, but especially looking at some of the other names below us, such as The Mill, Framestore, Digital Domain and Psyop, all huge studios with great reputations, it’s very satisfying to see that our little team is in such esteemed company.


July 1st, 2008 . 4 comments

Last week, Lighthouse was released online, a short film project that our studio had been working on for the last couple of months. The full details about the project, with the movie itself viewable online, high res stills, and production breakdown video are available in the post we made at CGTalk, so please do go and check it out there. The response so far has been great, we got featured on the front page of said website, and have had several thousand views with very encouraging comments.

Although it was a bit tricky for me, being the bottleneck responsible for the texturing, shading, lighting, comping, with a couple of weeks of late nights towards the end of the project, it was quite enjoyable overall. Exopolis, our clients in LA, were fun guys to work with and gave us a lot of room to work without being micromanaged. It’s interesting that Liberty Mutual (the insurance firm who commissioned the work, in the form of the ‘responsibility project‘) are now spending their marketing dollars on producing themed art, rather than usual commercials. It’s certainly the kind of work I’d love to be doing more of.

Recent work

December 4th, 2007 . 5 comments

I’ve just updated the website for the studio where I work and put a bunch of somewhat recent work up, so I thought I might show a few of the commercial projects I’ve been working on lately. A lot of the interesting work has been illustrations, but recently we’ve just finished an animated TVC for Bridgestone which has just gone to air here in Australia.

The others had done a few similar ads with the gecko in Max before I started working here, but since our animator is becoming more familiar with Blender, especially due to the nice animation tools we have now, we decided to have a go doing this one in Blender (everything except modelling, which came out of Max). I was responsible for the lighting/shading/rendering.

The final animation (3MB QuickTime).

Here’s some other recent work that I’ve been involved in, too:

gathering dust

September 27th, 2007 . 1 comment

Three months since the last post here, I think that deserves either an award or a slap on the wrist. Things have been busy, and I’m sorry to say I’ve been much more inclined to spend my free time in other ways than writing here.

Work has been through alternating bursts of slow r&d time and busy projects, the latter being where I find myself at the moment. We’re using Blender more and more, currently we’re doing an immensely complex animation of around 12,000 frames, without much time to do it in. It’s the first project of this scale that we’ve done in Blender as a team, and although it’s a lot to manage and keep track of, it’s been pretty good.

Blender’s linked library / group / scene / action system has been great, and much easier than they were doing previously for similar projects in Max. I’m keeping a master scene file that contains everything, however most of the models/rigs in there are coming in from linked groups in external files, that any of the others can add to and update. Not only does this keep things easy to modify and ripple through, but it allows us to distribute the workload well between all of us by segmenting the files finely. I’m afraid I can’t give much more detailed info at this moment, perhaps some time in the future.

The work I was doing on glossy reflections/refractions was finished a while ago, the end product being much more robust and advanced than in that last post, and also including all sorts of extra nice things like using QMC sampling for ray shadows and ambient occlusion. These changes are now officially in Blender’s SVN repository and will be in the next major release, however I’ve already been making use of it extensively. This not overly interesting illustration I did for a magazine cover made it into the Australian Creative magazine gallery and uses a lot of anisotropic blurry reflection.

I made some nice docs online here: Glossy Reflection/Refraction / Raytraced Soft Shadows / QMC Sampling. Thanks again to Brecht van Lommel and Alfredo de Greef who both gave me some great guidance and help along the way, and I look forward to doing more work in this area in the future. A few other changes I’ve made recently have been extra lamp falloff options, including custom curve, enabling different curve tilt interpolation types, and I’ve also committed a bunch of ex-tuhopuu UI related work to the ‘imagebrowser’ branch, to work on separately in there until I can find the time to finish it up and bring to the main Blender SVN trunk.

But life goes on…


June 12th, 2007 . 17 comments

Previously, I’ve grumpily complained that there aren’t enough people interested in working on Blender’s internal renderer, and so it was only fair that I put my money where my mouth is. I mentioned I’d been doing some coding recently, and this is one of the products of that time: blurry/glossy reflections and refractions in Blender’s internal raytracer. It works similarly in concept to yafray’s ‘conetrace’, sampling a cone of rays around the current pixel to get an averaged, blurry result. The sampling is using a quasi-monte carlo Halton sequence, which Brecht van Lommel previously converted into C code in an old experiment of his, and which he gave me a lot of valuable help with – thanks a bunch, Brecht!

This has been quite an interesting (though sometimes frustrating) learning experience for me, diving into a new area of Blender’s source code for me, and learning about many concepts I was previously unfamiliar with. What I’ve got so far probably isn’t perfect, but I’m very happy with the progress made so far. I’ll post again soon about some of the process and things I’ve learned so far, hopefully in a way that people not used to reading technical SIGGRAPH papers will get some value from. But for now, here are some pretty pictures, and a patch! There’s also a bit of discussion in this thread on, too.

Blurry reflections Blurry refractions

Baking paper

April 18th, 2007 . 7 comments

I thought I’d quickly share a less conventional usage of some of Blender’s newer features that’s been sitting around on my desktop for a while now. A few months ago, it was (my girlfriend) Kat’s birthday and I thought I’d have some fun and make a simple pop-up card, rather than just buying one. Of course after thinking about it for a little while, my curiosity got the better of me and I set about to make it in CG.

It’s just a simple tree, based on the design of a ring of hers. I traced the shape, making sure it was kept in two flat halves, unwrapped it, and sculpted on a bark-like surface. Then, I added a plane with a dirt texture, added some grass, and set up some lights. From there it was just a matter of doing a full render bake to texture, leaving me with a grass image from above, and the unfolded, textured tree. I saved out the baked textures, printed them on to card, cut them out with a scalpel and wrote a message. I had no idea if it would work or not, but I think it came out all right in the end.


baked textures

printed and assembled

Fast fake SSS

March 18th, 2007 . 12 comments

I came across an article yesterday which referenced a presentation at SIGGRAPH 2004 by ATI, talking about a quick method for faking subsurface scattering in skin and had to give it a try in Blender. It’s by no means accurate, but it’s very fast and easy to set up now in Blender. The technique is apparently what they used on the Matrix: Revolutions ‘superpunch’ shot, it’s basically using UV information for finding pixel locations on the surface, by rendering a baked image of the lighting and blurring it.

Luckily, with the baking tools now in Blender, this is simple. Just set up your unwrapped model so it’s rendering as usual [1], give it a new image texture and do a Bake Render Meshes → Full Render, to get a baked image of that lighting information [2]. When you do this, it’s important to set the baking bleed margin high [3], so when you blur this image later, you don’t get the black background spilling back into the visible area.

basic render

baked lighting to the UV map

margin bleed setting

[1] Basic render

[2] Baked UV map

[3] Margin settings

Now just load that image up as an image texture on your model’s material. You can do this without saving or packing the image since it’s still in memory, but if you don’t, it’ll be lost when you next load up that blend file, so you might as well save it. The next step is to blur this image, to fake the light scattering around under the surface. You can do this in Photoshop or something, but the easiest way is to just raise the ‘Filter’ value in the image texture [4]. This sets the width of the sampling area for when the pixels are looked up during texture mapping, and is pretty much the same as blurring the image. Switch on ‘Gauss’ to use Gaussian filtering instead of the box filter. Gaussian is much softer and doesn’t leave stepping artifaces with large filter sizes like Box does. It can also help to switch off MipMaps, though this will slow down the render as a tradeoff.

Finally, you’re going to be using this image texture to provide the lighting on your object, so first turn down your diffuse shader’s reflection value (usually ‘Ref’), give this texture a UV mapping, and turn up ‘Emit’ so the material is self illuminated by the texture. There are a few ways you could go about this such as mapping the texture to affect the ‘Ref’ channel, but what I’ve done in these examples is to turn down Ref to about 0.15, Emit up to about 0.85 and map the texture to the Color channel.

Render, and there you have it [5]! I gave it a try on my recent sculpt model, and it looks interesting there too [6]. For some situations, this works just fine, but it’s only really practical for things like skin, since it’s just blurring. It won’t handle real translucency, like light coming through a leaf.

Image texture filter settings

Suzanne with fake SSS

Effect applied to a sculpt model

[4] Filter settings

[5] Suzanne rendered with the effect

[6] Applied to a sculpt model

The good thing about this technique, unlike the toon shader/shadow buffer method, is that it lets you use a standard lighting and material setup. This technique isn’t view dependent, so it will be fine in animations like flyarounds, as long as the model or light sources aren’t moving. Perhaps it would be possible to get it working in animation by means of a script – i.e. for reach frame, do the bake render, and since you’re already using that image as a texture, it should go fine. Of course this is still a cheesy hack, so bring on the real thing!


March 5th, 2007 . 11 comments

Today I spent my first day working at a new full time job! I’m freelancing as a 3D artist at ProMotion studios in Sydney, helping out with visual work like concept design, modelling, texturing, lighting, rendering, etc.

It’s a small studio on the 8th floor of a building near Circular Quay, with 6 artists/animators including the director. I’ll be there for four weeks, and as long as we’re all happy with how things are going, I’ll most likely be staying on permanently after that.

They’re using mainly 3DS Max with Vray, which I’ve used before a while ago and will also be using too, however one of the reasons I’m there is because the director is interested in Blender, and would like to learn it and to start using it more and more in the studio.

I’m going to help with this, showing him what Blender can do and how, and finding ways to integrate it into the workflow. I predict UV unwrapping, fluid sim, and perhaps compositing might be good first candidates for this, though I was already using Blender today on my own for a quick illustration project. Looks like there will be some interesting times and experiences ahead!

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